Cataloging Models


BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework Initiative) will be the successor to the nearly 50 year old MARC standard for carrying our library bibliographic data. BIBFRAME will be more friendly to the linked, web-based information environment in which libraries and library users live. Visit the BIBFRAME FAQ webpage to learn more about this emerging model.

Minitex BIBFRAME Resources

DCME Mailing BIBFRAME Notes Series

An occasional series describing the origins of BIBFRAME, its content, and its application. These articles appeared in the May, July, and August/September 2014 issues of the Minitex DCME Mailing.

BIBFRAME Online Resources

    The website that serves as the repository for all things BIBFRAME. It includes links to the Library of Congress Bibliographic Framework Initiative website, the BIBFRAME Model, and the BIBFRAME implementation and testing site.
  • Library of Congress BIBFRAME Webcasts & Presentations
    BIBFRAME Update sessions recorded from various conference presentations in 2014.
  • BIBFRAME Listserv
    A space to provide feedback, respond to proposals, and make your requirements known as the model develops.


Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) is a document illustrating a framework for accessing and retrieving records from bibliographic databases from a user's point of view. Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD) describes the authority side of the library catalog from the same perspective. Subject authority record information and its user context are provided in Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD). RDA is based on FRBR, FRAD, and with a future revision, FRSAD.

FRBR Resources

FRBR Online Resources
Books on FRBR
  • LeBoeuf, Patrick, ed. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR): Hype or Cure-All? Binghamton, NY: Haworth Information Press, 2005. Explores theoretical issues, describes challenges that accompany implementation of FRBR, and suggests ways FRBR could be a tool to improve library systems.
  • Maxwell, Robert L. FRBR: A Guide for the Perplexed. Chicago: American Library Association, 2008. Defines the entity-relationship model, FRBR entities, and relationships among entities. Discusses why FRBR is important for the future of information organization and what a catalog based on FRBR principles might look like.
  • Taylor, Arlene G., ed. Understanding FRBR: What It Is and How It Will Affect Our Retrieval Tools. Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2007. A basic introduction to FRBR. Also includes discussions about FRAD, RDA, and the issues involved in using FRBR with various formats such as cartographic materials and music.
Articles and Shorter Works on FRBR
  • Tillett, Barbara. What is FRBR?: A Conceptual Model for the Bibliographic Universe. [Washington, D.C.]: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 2004. Outlines the background of the development of the Functional Requirements, the concepts involved, and their potential impact on cataloging rules, bibliographic structures, and systems design for cataloging applications.
  • Babeu, Alison. "Building a 'FRBR-Inspired' Catalog: The Perseus Digital Library Experience." Medford, MA: Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University, 2008. Describes an experiment to create a FRBR-ized catalog for an online classics collection.
  • Bowen, Jennifer. "FRBR: Coming Soon to Your Library?" Library Resources & Technical Services 49, no. 3, p. 175-188. Explores the possible effects of FRBR on libraries.
  • Riley, Jenn. "FRBR." [United States]:, 2006. A succinct presentation of basic FRBR definitions and issues.

FRAD Resources

Books on FRAD

FRSAD Resources

FRSAD Online Resources
  • Zeng, Marcia Lei, Maja ┼Żumer, and Athena Salaba, eds. Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD): A Conceptual Model. The Hague: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, 2010. Formerly known as Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records (FRSAR)
  • FRSAD. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Offers a brief introduction to FRSAD based in part on a 2007 article by the editors of the published version of the FRSAD report.


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